Soils and Groundwater  

A thin top layer of the soil in the active flood plains consists of fine silt; while the underground material is clayey.  Soil material  in basins and the channels is homogenised to a depth of about 50cm.  Occasionally, sandy soils in small patches are also found in these areas.  In the old flood plains meander scars and levees possess soils which vary from very find sand to silt loam.  The soil material in the level plains and basins consists of silty clay and clay.  Homogenisation of soils  is deeper in the level plains, basins and channel infills than in the meander bars and levees.  Soil salinity (pH) ranges between 8.0 and 9.0.

Due to proximity of the river and the low altitude, the water table in the area is very high (near the surface), however, water in the area is fresh (around 1200 ppm).  The soils of piedmont plains are suitable for agricultural purposes.  The mountains in the western part of the district consist of low hogbacks and plateaus formed by eroded tertiary anticlines.  In general terms, the anticlines are steeper on the eastern side.  Faults are rare, and those which occur are frequently parallel to the axes of the mountain range.